It is always interesting to contemplate photographs that serve to illustrate a sea change in cultural consciousness that has occurred over time. The photograph here certainly qualifies in that regard. When I came across this picture, I felt sadness and anger, taking exception especially to the celebratory aspect of the postures of the soldiers and also to the display of those magnificent hawk carcasses ignobly draped upside down, wings outspread across the Hummer, adding to the tragedy of their extinction. Notes attached to the accession record recounts the story: “in November of 1943, Arsenal commander Colonel Paul Rutten grew tired of hearing complaints about Arsenal-based hawks killing chickens and other small domestic animals in the local community. He requested Sargent Woodrow and Corporal Brown to carefully thin out the hawk population using short-range carbine rifles; which “kill” was no doubt broadcast triumphantly to Benicia residents. Since 1972, through an amendment to the 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty Act, all raptors or “birds of prey” (including hawks, eagles, ospreys, falcons, kites, owls, and vultures) are strictly protected, (unless excepted through special permits from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), attracting penalties reaching up to $15,000 per bird and six months imprisonment for common violations. The sale or barter of migratory birds is a felony with penalties of up to $500,000! None of us want our pets or livestock harmed – finding a balance between the needs of human beings and other animals can be difficult, but without this kind of regulatory action, a number of these species would be on the verge of extinction or extinct already. Sometimes it is possible to take comfort from history by noting the positive changes that can result from applied research, educational outreach, and concerned citizens taking action through legislation.